This is my complete guide to The Perfect Lead for 2021. In this all-new guide, you’ll learn the following:
• The importance of the right foundation
• How musicality is key, but now it’s essential
• Having good manners is the new trend in 2021
• Learn to release your creativity
A quick question for you… do you want to dance more often, and to be remembered every time you do? If so, then you’re in the right place.
Today you’ll learn from the complete guide to The Perfect Lead that I put together for just you. These are the things that propelled my dance persona to a whole new level.
In this article, I’m going to show the characteristics of a good lead that I’ve used in my career as a dancer.
The best part? All of these are proven concepts and tips that will bring you a better dancing experience for many years to come.
Guys, let’s get started on how to lead in dancing. ( FYI… this information is good for both lead and follow )
Double Down on Your Foundation - Lead and Follow
Dance is one of the most multi-purpose skills out there. What else can you use in the club and as a workout? Am I right or what?
Knowing the dance steps is awesome. Leading and/or following is extremely important. Heck, understanding what to wear when dancing is super important as well.
Let’s go ahead and get this out of the way: lead and follow dance definition.
Lead and follow are designations given to two people dancing. The lead is responsible for guiding and initiating different dance steps. The lead directs the follower by means of subtle physical and visual signals, allowing the dance to be smoothly coordinated.
But for now, you need to overlook this part of the dancing and focus on these new things that are as extremely important as those mentioned above.
Let’s find out what they are…
Lead: Nail This Simple Truth.
This is something for lead and follow, too. It doesn’t matter if you’re a professional, advanced, or intermediate dancer.
When it comes to creating an awesome experience on the dance floor, this simple truth is HUGE. You, the lead, must understand that it is all about the lady.
Guys, this is and will ALWAYS be what you need to understand both on the dance floor and throughout your day-to-day activities.
Even if your partner is not as good of a dancer as you are, as a good lead YOU should always give her your full attention for the duration of the dance.
Chatting over her shoulder with friends or engaging in another kind of behavior demonstrates your lack of interest, and cannot only hurt your partner’s feelings, but also make you look like a jerk to everyone else.
Instead of chatting over her shoulder, try this:
Focus your full attention on her. Pay a sincere dance related compliment when it is due. Show that you had a great time dancing with her and that you would like to have another dance later. Simple stuff, guys, simple stuff. It works. This is what makes a good dance partner.
Focus On Your Practice Mindset.
How to lead in dancing? First, you need to understand the two important kinds of “practice mindsets” you need to know. They are both crucial to determine how far you want to go. This is very important to both lead and follow.
This kind of practice is very technical, timing-driven, and focused on proper lead and follow execution.
If you are training to perform, you concentrate on the routine, or a fixed sequence of patterns with all the styling cues, to make you feel like an expert.
The downside to this kind of practice is that it minimizes your creative side as a dancer.
It is ideal for training for a performance routine, becoming an expert, or if your desire is to teach others every level of dancing.
Most importantly, if you want to be a good social dancer and be able to lead in dancing with anybody, then you’re going to need to ponder, explore, and work on your dancing with as wide a variety of people as possible.
What makes a good dance partner is the Recreational Practice Mindset. This one, simply put, is the one you do for fun at Salsa dancing clubs or social events. Keep in mind that there are both basic and advanced ways of how and when to lead or follow, which enhance your dance experience.
“Recreational practice” brings out your dance persona, your creative side, and your fun factor without putting to much pressure on your technical aspect of dancing. The premises are, an a simple basic concept, the same when you are practicing.
The more you practice, the more it becomes part of you. With either kind of practice, your skill level will greatly improve. You will improve and build your confidence, and with greater confidence, you will enjoy your time on the dance floor much more.
Lead and follow the question you need to answer if… What kind of practice mindset you need to get you where you want to be? Then, make it happen.
Optimize Your Learning With The Invisible Partner.
Have you ever considered the importance of leading and following in ballroom dancing? If not, that’s ok. It was drilled into me when I was becoming a ballroom dance instructor. It was then when I stumbled upon the thing that saved me then, and still propels me now as a dancer. Ta da!
The Invisible Partner ( a.k.a. practicing without a partner ) is a system I use all the time with my students throughout their journey to becoming great dancers. It does not matter if they are just starting to dance or if they have been dancing for years.
The Invisible Partner will allow you to practice alone on your footwork; applying it to the timing of the music with the styling of arms and body motion. We are not talking about Shines, just talking about practicing without a partner here, ok?
Lead and follow, a note of caution if you are planning to do The Invisible Partner…
• Lead, you ONLY want to do this when YOU KNOW the step and its mechanics, without any mistakes or hesitation.
At a basic level, this doesn’t mean you are doing Shines steps. Shines improve your ability to recognize rhythms, instruments, and song structure, helping you to reflect that expression in your dancing in a more playful way.
One of the biggest benefits I see with my students is that this one thing alone builds so much confidence. Being able to do four or five steps and mimic the nonexistent partner dancing with them at one time is such a huge reward.
Suddenly, they begin to see themselves in a whole new light.
Let me ask you something – Can you lead three or four steps consecutively without your dance partner? If so, great! Continue reaping the benefit of practicing with The Invisible Partner.
The Complete Formula for Dancing.
When it comes to Salsa dancing, or any other kind of dancing, YOU (the LEAD) need to know the building blocks that make dancing possible. Just knowing the Basic Step, Right Turn, or Left Turn means you are dancing, but still need to learn how to lead in dancing.
This might be the letter D on the word Dancing, and more is still needed.
You need to know everything, such as Right, Left, Inside, and Outside Turns. Concepts such as Directional Motion, Weight Transfer, Two and/or Single Crossed Hand Holds, for example, need to be mastered.
Acquiring these things, for lead and follow, will give you a solid foundation to your salsa dancing needs.
These are the building blocks needed to become a great dancer, especially if you are thinking about performing later on in your Salsa dancing career.
Ask yourself… Do you know how many Essential Steps there are? How many do you know-do?
Make This Part Of Your Dancing Script.
This is another characteristic of a good lead and what makes a good dance partner that I consistently apply every time I’m dancing socially, or even just practicing.
Be aware of the space available to you. I understand leads are not superheroes on the dance floor, but if we are all paying attention to our surroundings and making sure the ladies are out of harm’s way, they will appreciate our efforts and will remember our nice gestures.
If you find that the dance floor is packed, do the following:
- Lead, keep your steps small, your arm movements tight, and maintain a consistent frame. This will help you secure the lady and better control your dance movements.
- Lead and Follow, save the big dance moves for when you have space. Just because you looked and saw space there a second ago, doesn’t mean there isn’t someone there now who just moved into that space.
This is a pro tip I use all the time when I’m socially dancing: Your eyes should always precede movement.
One of the most common ways to injure your partner during a turn is to allow your elbow to get ahead of your eyes. I have seen nasty, permanent, painful scars on the front of women’s feet and it is not a pretty sight.
It is hard for me to understand why they would endure such cruelty when they’re out on the dance floor.
Some ways you, the lead, can help avoid these kinds of mishaps are:
• Do not dance too close to the tables.
• Avoid dancers that appear to be intoxicated.
• Move away from those who seem very disrespectful on the dance floor.
I always encourage my students to dance in a straight line. This is another simple tip that will help you to control your space to the best of your ability and maximize what you can do every single time.
In a perfect world, dancers would have complete control of the situation. But, at every gathering, you STILL see people that have no sense of their surroundings, which may prevent others from enjoying their experience. It’s so sad.
Timing Is Not Everything
Musicality and timing are EVERYTHING, almost! Lead and follow, it doesn’t matter how amazing you look, how many turns and spins you can do, what great posture you have, or how fast you can move IF they are not done on time with the music.
Well, good luck to you. As a dancer, if you are not dancing on time with the music, then you are not dancing… but it is still NOT everything!
Find out why it’s not everything down below. Let’s begin.
The Simple Truth About Timing.
My philosophy about dancing, and the way I explain it to a new student, is that timing refers to moving to the beat of the music. Key word here is: Moving.
Having a good sense of timing means more than just doing Basic Steps perfectly to music beats. It’s not difficult to move to the beat, but it is difficult AND takes lots of practice to teach your mind and body how to actually move to AND feel the beat of the music at the same time.
For some people this comes naturally, but to others it might take time and listening to lots of Salsa music to learn the beat of the song.
In my ‘book’, perfect timing is letting go and allowing yourself to express your feelings through your movements, instead of trying to keep count of the beats in your head for each step.
When you, both lead and follow, achieve perfect timing, your dancing will appear natural and intended.
But, if you’re new to Salsa dancing, you need to do the following:
• Understand that if you keep practicing the timing will come. It is a guarantee!
• Set aside a little bit of time each week to just listen to Salsa music.
• Pick two or three songs for a whole week and practice the same steps for its duration.
As you become more familiar with the music, the instruments become less exotic to your ears. Your brain will start recognizing patterns just as it does in music you already know.
Lead, Don’t Overly Rely On Count - Control Your Timing.
Timing still is a core part of every dance. While it is possible to dance without it, it’s certainly not ideal. Timing is what dictates if all the elements of a step, or series of steps, in a dance can be achieved.
This is what helps you create magic, your magic. You can express the feeling, vibe, or attitude of any step. Don’t you agree?
Stepping on count is, and forever will be, your best friend. If you prefer to dance ON1 style, the counts of 1 and 5 will be your markers. But, if you like the adventure of dance ON2 style, the counts of 2 and 6 will be markers. These counts are where your emphasis should be, in simple terms.
The best way to learn this is by listening to and understanding the music, in conjunction with practicing the steps to the songs.
So, this is something simple you need to do… Listen to the music over and over again.
Trust me when I tell you, simple things work!
Let me add the following: you need to have a good grasp on how the mechanics of any step works because it can be influenced directly by timing.
You can understand where you need to be and when you need to emphasize body motion to get the desired outcome of the step.
But, if you can’t express that knowledge through your body, you won’t be able to utilize it.
This skill is formed by practicing, drilling, taking classes, exercising, and having experiences. You can manifest your dance knowledge through your main instrument, your body. The only way to do this, simply put, is practice.
This is what it means to lead in dancing like a pro.
Assemble a Timing Routine for Improvement.
Now that you have an idea about timing, how to improve it is solely up to you.
Practice is going to be your best friend along with your determination, persistence, and will. So, put in the effort and practice a lot.
Here we give you four hints on how to apply all you have learned so far.
Listen to Salsa-Bachata music all the time.
This is ONE main reason why pop music comes so naturally to you. You spent thousands of hours listening to it. Same reason salsa is so natural to Latin people, we grew up with it and we spent thousands of hours listening to it. Therefore, lead in dancing is kind of easy for us.
So, what you can do next is listen to Salsa whenever and wherever you can: in the car, in the shower, and when you are cleaning the house. Day by day, this will cement in your brain.
Initially you will not notice the difference, but one day it will just ‘click’ and a new world of possibility will open up for you.
Count the beats.
Never feel ashamed to count when you practice, and even when you are dancing, in the beginning. Everyone has to learn from the beginning by doing this. I did it, too. This is essential for you to identify the fundamental Salsa beat from the rest of the percussion.
Count even when you listen to music and you are not dancing. I used to count to the music when I was driving back home from work back in the day.
Dance to the music.
All level dancers, lead and follow, make this mistake when dancing. When they are dancing to faster songs, they use speed to hide mistakes because are less noticeable. Pauses are shorter – not emphasizing them can be easily ‘covered up’.
To really improve your timing, you need to do the opposite. You need to practice to a normal, medium tempo … in other words, to the music played in the club. Learn to enjoy taking your time practicing to the beat.
Only when you are fully comfortable with this, then proceed to fast music.
Never practice any Dance Step out of time!
Do you find yourself tempted to practice a new dance move that you just learned without marking the Salsa beats because you just want to make sure you remember the figure? If you have, stop! If you haven’t, good for you.
NEVER execute a dance movement out of time, whether at home, at a salsa class, or in a club. Practice the step only with the counts. Train your brain to always to practicing steps with counts first, then dance with music, and finally add “movements with rhythm” (a.k.a . styling the steps).
Musicality is Having a Comeback
It has been said that musicality is how dancers hear, interpret, and dance to music.
Do you feel this statement is correct? I think so.
I have been told that musicality is the essence of all movement. It is always present, whether you are listening to the notes being played (aka music) or not.
Well, let me give you a hand understanding musicality and the importance of having a hold on this concept.
Lead and Follow, Focus on Musicality.
When it comes to mastering musicality, there’s one big catch you need to know: Musicality is the interpretation a dancer gives to a piece of music with her or his body movements. In other words, is a dancer’s sensitivity to, or knowledge of, the music.
At its core, dancing is showing music in physical form.
This not to be confused with the definition of rhythm, which is the strong, regular, and repeated pattern of movement or sound.
The term musicality refers to the feeling of dancing inside the music, as opposed to floating on top of it with robotic motions, if you will. This statement will help you define what makes a good dance partner.
In my opinion, a well-developed sense of musicality separates the pros from the amateurs and makes it so enjoyable to watch. Also, it’s a far more rewarding way to dance! Plain and simple.
This is the nonverbal way of telling people, “this is how I feel, hear, and interpret this song.”
This is why focusing on musicality is very important once you have an excellent grasp on your dance steps.
Replace Your Fear with Courage.
Can musicality be taught if you don’t have formal music training?
Yes, it can be taught! With a little bit of natural intuition and a whole lot of practice you can also master it.
Here is how you can do it:
• First, spend a good amount of time listening to the genres of music you want to be good at. The by-product of doing this exercise is to activate the brain’s musicality muscle.
• Second, learn to verbalize instruments, like when the trumpets come into play or what changes happen to the song when the cow bell starts playing.
This will help you translate what you hear into movement, which will, in turn, give your dancing texture.
• Third, learn the difference between a clarinet and an oboe, a trumpet and a trombone, and a bass guitar and an upright bass. This will give a clear sense of the power of the instrument at play.
Example: Bass guitar base has an overall flat sound -no depth. Upright Bass, on the other hand, has depth in the lower notes and a more full sound. As you can see, your body can start emulating the flow of a song with energy and personality in your dancing.
Be Creative, NOT Receptive.
Receptivity and creativity are the main components in musicality that any intermediate or advanced dancer can relate to for both lead and follow.
Dancers with musical receptivity are the ones with the ability to receive, comprehend, be sensitive to, and have a working knowledge of musical concepts like rhythm, tempo, phrasing, mood, and texture. I am referring to the people who have a school base knowledge.
The other group of dancers have musical creativity, which is the ability to interpret and connect with the accompanying music, or to phrase and add dynamic movements even in the absence of accompaniment, in a way that is unique or interesting. I’m referring to more street-club dancers who are knowledgeable about their favorite artist, and so forth.
In a nutshell, musicality in dance might be considered a measure or degree to which both lead and follow are receptive and creative in translating or rendering music through movement.
It is a key ingredient in which a dancer can display what they are made of through their own unique interpretation of the music.
Is Musicality Solo Or Partner Work?
Well, I will tell you it is both. Is it easy to do? Not always.
The bottom line here, lead, is to know and to understand that it requires practice. Both practicing alone and, of course, social dancing will allow you to be able to do this.
You have to find a good balance between expressing yourself and over-expressing yourself, which makes you lose your frame and groundness to the floor.
Doing this requires control, both from you and your partner. Now the only thing you need to do is ‘lead’ the follow while you use your musicality. This might take some good old trial and error in the beginning, since you need to find the right balance of leading strong or firm enough (so she feels it you are leading something) but not so strong as to pull her out of balance.
The follower HAS to know solo dancing and/or partner work, or else it won’t work at all.
Remember, it’s going to be a lot easier for the lead to apply musicality solo rather than trying to show the follow exactly what you want her to do.
The follow’s musicality will always be shown off with her unique way to style with a partner or solo work.
Show Your “Dance Persona”
Have you seen two people come together really well during a dance? It’s a beautiful thing to watch. To achieve this, those two people, known as lead and follow, need practice together.
Lead in dancing alone can take you so far in developing your dance persona. It is a solid foundation to have but you still might need a little more than just that. Let’s see how I can help you with that.
Lead, first things first…
Lead And Follow... You Need To Know This First
Designing or crafting your own style can really help your dancing stand out from the crowd, but the questions that you need to ask yourself are: How can I, as a lead, be creative in my dancing? How does SuperMario come up with his incredible moves all the time? What is style? Who creates a style? What does it mean to be creative anyway?
Well, there are no objective answers to the above questions. They all, one way or the other, depend on subjective views (yours) on artistic expression, what you like, and what you intend to do by dancing in the first place. Yes? Yes! (What a mouth full that was!)
So, lead and follow, this is what you need to understand in order to tap into the creative side of your dancing:
Style and Creativity – Style and creativity in my opinion are always together because I believe the two are unavoidably linked.
Conscious and Unconscious Creativity – Both happen when you are present when you’re dancing or, for that matter, practicing. In plain English, coming up with some ideas and then developing them on the dance floor.
This is the simple, but freeing, truth that I’ve learned and continue to share with others in the dance community.
I understand that many of you may have been taught the idea that you need to use a lot of muscles to get moves to happen. This could be because of followers that resist your lead, or because you think you need to be forceful to be clear.
The reality is that you don’t need to be forceful. You just need to lead intelligently.
You should also understand that a forceful lead is not necessary for everybody and that many followers will respond to lighter leading, especially if they are only given light leads.
So, if you’re dancing with a follower who is particularly rough or stiff, it is probably because they have been handled too harshly and have adjusted their frames in order to protect themselves.
You often can fix this by providing a softer and clear lead. Focus on quality connection not brute force.
A well calibrated lead and delicate touch is heaven for the follower, I know.
The follower who prefers a light lead likes it because it can be extraordinary. They feel intelligent, suave, and sexy. Being safe makes them feel good. They feel your considerate, welcoming, and inviting behavior. Dancing with them requires less energy and is more sophisticated, therefore, making you a better dancer.
Leading intelligently is another characteristic of a good lead.
Creating or Imitating.
I have a question for you, lead and follow… When it comes to developing your dance persona, what’s more important: creating or imitating?
In my opinion, the answer is: creating.
Unless you have a massive library of steps, it’s pretty much impossible to create lots of new dance steps and recall them all.
The fact is: Developing a Dance Persona takes time, energy, and several rounds of edits and practice, if you ask me.
Whichever path you take, you will have to carry out two tasks:
- Coming up with something really novel implies exploring new ideas, combinations, options.
- Make sure that what you come up with is still danceable/leadable (something which is not so bizarre as to look like some different dance altogether).
Here is where the concept of creating and imitating become inevitably intertwined. Creativity is not just about exploring but exploring within a context; it is stepping outside boundaries, but not too much. It is a tension between breaking boundaries and imposing new ones.
Imitating is repeating a particular process without any freedom of expression but maintaining the boundaries already established.
When creating something new, its acceptance most often depends on whether the ‘public’ accepts the new boundaries or rejects them by not imitating them.
Work With Real Dance Instructors
In some ways, this is the secret to legitimizing your “dance persona”.
So, what does it mean to “work with dance instructors”?
Well, let’s say you’re ready to focus on your dancing and the way you want to look.
There are two simple approaches to this:
Option A: Hire a random guy from the club, who dances well, to help you.
Option B: Work with a guy who happens to be a dance Instructor, not only for Salsa, but all ballroom dances.
The random guy is going to teach you stuff that’s already out there.
Sure, the stuff out there might be “good”. But, it will lack the substance that you can ONLY get from a qualified dance instructor.
A dance instructor can speak from their own first-hand experiences, like going in detail about the essential steps that make Salsa dancing possible, understanding the importance of leading and following in the ballroom dancing arena as well as club dancing, the need for frame-based dancing, and a million other things that you ONLY get from doing something in real life.
Now the question that you need to answer is: What makes a good dance partner? Is it option A or B?
Reuse Specific Steps and Tips
You don’t need to reuse an entire dance repertoire for this approach to work.
In fact, you can take one of your best sections from an existing dance move and reuse that somewhere else. I am referring to the “spider effect”.
I have it said before, and I still continue saying it today….
Mastery is becoming really good at something and can also be a source of strength and confidence.
For a lot of dancers, that skill is dancing itself, but it doesn’t have to be. Whatever it is, if you find something you are passionate about and put in the hard work to become successful at it, you will feel more confident in yourself.
Remember, dance is a form of communication and a shared experience between two human beings.
• Improving your dance skills will make you a more enjoyable dance partner, but there are other areas of your life you can work on to improve the experience of dancing with you as well
• Even if you’re not the best dancer in the room, if you take care of yourself, have a positive attitude, and have confidence in yourself as a person, people will love dancing with you.
That will make the process of dancing, and the journey to becoming a better dancer, all the more enjoyable.
Therefore take a single step and build on it, such as leading the same step differently. Example: Right Turn. Lead it with the right hand first, and then lead it with the left hand, two-hand hold, or crossed hands. Do you get the point?
Upscale Your Manners
So, you want to be a gentleman on the dance floor but don’t know where to start? Being a gentleman isn’t a personality defect. It’s not something you turn on and off like a switch. It is a lifestyle.
Being a gentleman revolves around one word: respect. It’s respect for yourself, those you care about, and those you want to care about, both on and off the dance floor.
Here are some things you can do to become a gentleman.
Replace Your Old Habits With New Ones
“There is a time and a place for everything in life” my mother used to say.
Man, how true that is.
Guys, it is time to ditch the old personality and get a new personality.
Allow me to show you the habits of a good lead that will add new flavor to your dancing. The best part? All of these will create a better dance experience for you and for your dance partner.
• Ditch the old attitude of feeling like you own the whole dance floor because you can dance. Keep your drinks, your cigarettes, and your attitude in check, and off the dance floor.
They are other people who want to dance, too. Be courteous to everybody else by finding a place away from where other people are already dancing.
• Guys, If you expect to see your dance partner having a great time dancing with you… well then, guess what? Show her that YOU are having a great time. It’s that simple.
If you don’t look like you’re enjoying yourself, she probably won’t be! So, opt to develop the new habit of smiling, and don’t be afraid to make eye contact either. Stop looking so serious all the time. Embrace the power of smiling and make that part of your new persona on the dance floor.
• Gentlemen, If you come to the Salsa club with the idea of “hooking up,” it is imperative to get rid of that bad thinking. Guys, if you think that it’s a good idea to be putting your hands in places that are going to offend your dance partner, think again!
Pride yourself on being a gentleman and keep it friendly. Most of the ladies out there are there for dancing and not hooking up. Just be their awesome dance friend and if there is any chemistry it will happen in a natural way, without being forced.
These are just a few things to start doing. I have a full article called The Definitive Guide To Dance Etiquette for 2021. Check it out.
A Quick Upgrade
Another quality of a good lead and follow is to be considerate of other dancers and stay in your space. They are also there to enjoy themselves, just like you are.
Lead and follow, if you bump into someone, please do not ignore the situation. Make eye contact and apologize at that moment, if you can. Gentlemen, please respect your partner and treat her with care. She is entrusting you with her safety, and that needs to be the prime consideration in every leading decision you make.
This quick upgrade alone will go a long way if you make an effort to do it every time and everywhere. Try it and reap the benefits for many years to come.
Give Compliments, Not Criticize
Teaching, or giving pointers, while you are dancing is a definite NO-NO on the dance floor.
When you are out socially dancing, you (and everyone else) are just trying to have a great time by showing off a new step or just having fun. The last thing you want to do is be someone critiquing their dance.
Instead, pay a compliment. Understand that your dance partner is out showing off, trying to be sexy, and wants to be acknowledged for their dance skills.
So don’t give pointers, just compliments! I guarantee that the person dancing with you will be annoyed by you giving pointers, especially when you are in a club and they can barely hear what you are saying anyway.
So avoid giving pointers and embrace the power of a compliment.
Nail Your Partner Skills
This one’s for you, lead. If you are dancing with a woman who is a beginner or not as advanced as you, then adjust your dancing accordingly. Simple right? Right!
It is “bad dance manners” to try and lead your partner through a bunch of moves that she doesn’t know or has a hard time following, to the point that you leave her feeling confused. Not good, not cool.
What you should do?
Here it comes…you should start with easier steps at the beginning if you are dancing with someone new for the first time, then gradually increase the difficulty of the steps. Just increase the dance level until you feel that you’ve matched her skill level. Ta-da!
Avoid at all costs being a jerk about it by continuing when she’s clearly not able to keep up. The best lead is the one who is able to dance with women at of a variety of skill levels and show them all a good time, no matter how inexperienced or advanced they are.
Gentlemen. Ladies. Lead and follow. Here is The Perfect Lead: The Definitive Guide for this year. I am pretty sure that together we will add a more valuable point to the new chapter and section.
The simple reality for the lead is that you have the power to choose what you are going to work on to improve your skill as a dancer. Only you.
Now I’d like to hear what you have to say:
– Which Chapter from this guide are you going to try first?
– What section speaks to you the most?
Either way, let me know by leaving a comment below right now.
As always, thank you very much for taking the time to share this article.